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# What Is Division? Explained For Primary School

What is division? There are four basic operations in maths: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Children will encounter all of these at primary school, starting from Year 1. From experience, children tend to find division the trickiest to grasp.

### What is division?

Division is a mathematical operation which involves the sharing of an amount into equal-sized groups. For example, “12 divided by 4” means “12 shared into 4 equal groups”, which would be 3.

In mathematics, this is written with the division symbol, called an obelus → ÷. Division can also be presented as a fraction: in this case, 12/4 (the division sign is represented as a forwards slash) or 124 (the division sign here is represented as a horizontal line). 12 ÷ 4, 12/4 and 124 are all equal to 3.

In a division, the first number (the amount being divided) is called the dividend; the second number (whatever the dividend is being divided by), is called the divisor; the answer is called the quotient. So, in the example above, 12 is the dividend, 4 is the divisor and 3 is the quotient. All Kinds of Word Problems Division

Practice solving word problems and using division with this free, printable worksheet! Download Free Now!

### Remainders

Sometimes a number cannot be shared into equal groups with an integer (whole number) as an answer, so we are left with a remainder. Take 13 ÷ 4 – we cannot split 13 equally into 4 groups (unless we venture into decimal numbers), so we would be left with 4 groups of 3 and 1 left over. In mathematics, this would be written as 3 remainder 1 (or 3r1), so 13 ÷ 4 = 3r1. Learn more about division with remainders here.

### Division and its inverse: multiplication

Division is often referred to as the opposite of multiplication. In the example 12 ÷ 4 = 3, we can use the inverse to see that 3 x 4 = 12. Likewise, where 12 ÷ 3 = 4, the inverse is that 4 x 3 = 12.

Whilst “dividing by 4” is usually seen as “sharing into 4 equal groups”, it could also be seen as “how many equal shares of 4 can be made?”. Despite the similar wording, there is a distinct difference between the two. See the first example below of 12 ÷ 4 – this shows 12 being shared into 4 equal groups (with 3 in each group). In the second example of 12 ÷ 4, it shows how many equal groups of 4 can be made – which is 3. Ultimately, the answers (quotients) are the same!

### Division facts

If a number is divisible (which means it can be divided by) by a one-digit number with no remainder (the quotients in these examples would be called factors), there is often a quick way to tell without having to actually work it out! A number is…

• …divisible by 2 if it is even (i.e. ends in one of the following digits: 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8)
e.g. 746 is divisible by 2 (can be divided by 2 without a remainder, or has 2 as a factor)
• …divisible by 3 if the sum of the digits is a multiple of 3
e.g. 471 is divisible by 3 because 4 + 7 + 1 = 12 and 1 + 2 = 3, which is a multiple of 3
• …divisible by 4 if the last 2 digits make a multiple of 4
e.g. 7,324 is divisible by 4 because 24 is a multiple of 4 – this works because subtracting the last two digits leaves you with a multiple of 100, and every multiple of 100 is also a multiple of 4
• …divisible by 5 if the last digit is a 0 or 5
e.g. 285 is divisible by 5
• …divisible by 6 if the number is divisible by both 2 and 3 (see rules above)
e.g. 438 is divisible by 6 because it’s even and its digit sum is a multiple of 3 (4 + 3 + 8 = 15, 1 + 5 = 6)
• …divisible by 8 if the last 3 digits make a multiple of 8 (so this will require a bit more working out!)
e.g. 42,976 is divisible by 8 because 976 is a multiple of 8 (978 ÷ 8 = 122) – this works because subtracting the last three digits leaves you with a multiple of 1,000, and every multiple of 1,000 is also a multiple of 8
• …divisible by 9 if the sum of the digits is a multiple of 9
e.g. 7,281 is divisible by 9 because 7 + 2 + 8 + 1 = 18 and 1 + 8 = 9
• …divisible by 10 if the last digit is a 0
e.g. 91,420 is divisible by 10

### How to explain division

To introduce division, start with smaller numbers and the concept of sharing in equal groups, e.g. my friend and I have 6 sweets and we want to share them between us – how many do we each get? By taking one sweet, giving one to my friend, taking another, giving another to my friend, taking one more and giving the last one to my friend, we can easily see we’d have 3 each.

As well as the concept of sharing, we can talk about grouping when we discuss division. In the problem above, instead of thinking about sharing between 2 people, we would talk about groups of 2 – how many groups of 2 can be made? By pairing up the sweets, we can make 3 groups.

Grouping and sharing are two ways of discussing division (as also previously referred to for 12 ÷ 4). However, there are other ways, such as repeated subtraction and using more formal methods (particularly useful as children move onto larger numbers) – see how to teach division for more support for whole classroom teaching and our division intervention blog to target individual pupils.

### When do children learn about division in school?

Children learn the concept of division right from Year 1, but the formal method of division (commonly known as the bus stop method) isn’t introduced until Year 5, where the children begin with short division (usually used when dividing by a one-digit number).

They will then learn long division (usually used when dividing by a 2-digit number) in Year 6. The long division method can be tricky for students, so make sure you read our blog on expert teacher insights from the classroom on teaching long division. We also have long division examples and long division questions to support your teaching in the classroom.

### How does division relate to other areas of maths?

As mentioned frequently throughout the curriculum, children are required to know their times tables and related division facts before the end of Year 4. However, another key part of the maths curriculum – introduced right from Year 1 – is fractions. A fraction is, essentially, a division.

Take one-half (½) for example: this literally means 1 ÷ 2; one shared into two equal groups is ½ (or 0.5). Here, the numerator (top number of the fraction) is the dividend; the denominator (bottom number of the fraction) is the divisor, and the fraction itself is the quotient!

As another example, look at three-eights (⅜): 3 ÷ 8, or three shared into eight equal groups, is ⅜ (or 0.375).

In order to understand fractions, children must fully understand the process of dividing – at first by 2 and 4 (as Year 1s are expected to find 1/2s and 1/4s of objects, shapes and quantities); then by 5 and 10 (Year 2); then 3, 4 and 8 (Year 3); then by 1, 6, 7, 9, 11 and 12 (Year 4); then by any one-digit number (Year 5); and finally by any two-digit number (Year 6).

Division is required whenever something needs to be shared equally between two or more groups. This could be cost (e.g. a £174 bill between four people), distance (e.g. working out the halfway point between two destinations), weight (a 2kg bag of apples shared three ways) or much more!

It is important to convey to students how division plays into everyday life. At Third Space Learning we try to incorporate real world division problems into our one-to-one online maths lessons. Personalised to each student’s unique needs, our online tuition aims to fill gaps in maths knowledge. In addition to online tuition, Third Space Learning offers an extensive collection of worksheets, learning and teaching resources to support students and teachers.

### Division worked examples

1. There are 10 sweets. Milly and her friend want to share them. How many do they each get?

The division here is 10 ÷ 2. Through the concept of sharing, the diagram below shows 10 sweets shared into 2 groups, resulting in 5 in each group.

Through the concept of grouping, the diagram below shows 10 sweets grouped in 2s, resulting in 5 groups.

1. 65 children take part in a quiz. There are 5 children in each team. How many teams are there altogether?

We could either count up in 5s until we reach 65 (13 times), or use our knowledge that 10 lots of 5 is 50, and we’d need 3 more 5s to make 65, so that is 13 lots of 5. Either way, we’d reach the answer of 13 teams.

1. Sam is making booklets. Each booklet must have 34 sheets of paper. He has 2 packets of paper. There are 500 sheets of paper in each packet. How many complete booklets can Sam make from 2 packets of paper?

2 packets x 500 sheets = 1,000 sheets of paper. Using long division, we can calculate that 1,000 ÷ 34 = 29 r 14. Sam can’t make a complete booklet out of 14 sheets, which means that he can only make 29 complete booklets.

### Division practice questions

1. Kim has 15p. She wants to share it equally between her and her two friends. How much would they each get? Answer: 5p each
2. 36 ÷ 4.  Answer: 9
3. A length of rope measures 224cm. It needs to be cut into 4 equal sections. How long is each section? Answer: 56cm
4. 2,464 ÷ 7. Answer: 352
5. Eggs are put in trays of 12. The trays are packed in boxes. Each box contains 180 eggs. How many trays are in each box? Answer: 15 trays
What are the 4 properties of division?

There are four properties within division: the dividend, divisor, quotient and remainder.

How do you explain division to a child?

Division is sharing an amount equally.

Why is division used?

Division is used to share an amount equally or to split an amount into equal groups.

What are division rules?

Divisibility rules are rules that can help you to know if one whole number is divisible by another whole number. There are a number of divisibility rules.

Do you have pupils who need extra support in maths?
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Year 6 Teacher
Sophie teaches mixed age classes at a small school in central England. She is a self confessed grammar pedant and number nerd so we've welcomed her as a regular author and editor for Third Space Learning.

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x #### All Kinds of Word Problems Division

Practice solving word problems and using division with this free, printable worksheet!

#### All Kinds of Word Problems Division Practice solving word problems and using division with this free, printable worksheet!