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Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division.

Powers and roots

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Substitution into expressions and formulae

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Here we will learn about** function notation**, including different forms of function notation, how to evaluate functions for given values and how to manipulate algebraic expressions using functions.

There are also function notation* *worksheets based on Edexcel, AQA and OCR exam questions, along with further guidance on where to go next if you’re still stuck.

**Function notation** is a way of expressing a relationship between two variables.

We are used to writing equations of straight lines in the form y = mx + c .

Using function notation we can write this as f(x) = mx + c , by replacing y with f(x) .

We can read this as “ the function f of x ”.

“f” can be thought of as the “name” of the function. We do not always have to use f for the name of the function; other common names include function g or function h.

The x is the input value known as the **independent variable**.

f(x) is the output value ( y -value) known as the **dependent variable**.

To use function notation we just substitute the values of x into the expression and evaluate it.

The diagram shows the value of a function for different x -values:

There are different types of function notation. As well as examples like g(x) = x^2 + 2 , we may also see it given as g : x → x^2 + 2 . This type of function notation that is more common in A level mathematics.

Function notation is also used in the table function of a scientific calculator. The table function is useful for finding values when graphing linear equations, quadratics, cubics and other polynomials.

In order to evaluate a function using function notation:

**Write out the function for x using function notation, replacing the x with an empty set of brackets (parentheses).****Replace the x in the function with the number or algebraic term in the brackets next to the name of the function.****Apply the correct operations to the number or term as appropriate and simplify.**

Get your free function notation worksheet of 20+ questions and answers. Includes reasoning and applied questions.

DOWNLOAD FREEGet your free function notation worksheet of 20+ questions and answers. Includes reasoning and applied questions.

DOWNLOAD FREEFunction notation is part of the larger topic, functions. You may find it useful to explore the main topic before looking into the detailed individual lessons below:

Find f(3) when f(x)= 4x - 1

**Write out the function for x using function notation, replacing the x with an empty set of brackets.**

2**Replace the x in the function with the number or algebraic term in the brackets next to the name of the function.**

3**Apply the correct operations to the number or term as appropriate and simplify.**

Find g(-2) when g(x) = x^2 + 4

**Write out the function for x using function notation, replacing the x with an empty set of brackets.**

g\left( {} \right)={{\left( {} \right)}^{2}}+4

g\left( -2 \right)={{\left( -2 \right)}^{2}}+4

**Apply the correct operations to the number or term as appropriate and simplify.**

g\left( -2 \right)=8

Find h(8) when h(x) = x^3 - 3x

**Write out the function for ** x ** using function notation, replacing the x with an empty set of brackets.**

h\left( {} \right)={{\left( {} \right)}^{3}}-3\left( {} \right)

h\left( 8 \right)={{\left( 8 \right)}^{3}}-3\left( 8 \right)

**Apply the correct operations to the number or term as appropriate and simplify.**

h\left( 8 \right)=488

Find f(2m) when f(x) = 5x + 7

**Write out the function for x using function notation, replacing the** ** x with an empty set of brackets.**

f\left( {} \right)=5\left( {} \right)+7

f\left( 2m \right)=5\left( 2m \right)+7

**Apply the correct operations to the number or term as appropriate and simplify.**

f\left( 2m \right)=10m+7

Find g(a+3) when g(x) = x^2 - 1

**Write out the function for x using function notation, replacing the** ** x with an empty set of brackets.**

g\left( {} \right)={{\left( {} \right)}^{2}}-1

g\left( a+3 \right)={{\left( a+3 \right)}^{2}}-1

**Apply the correct operations to the number or term as appropriate and simplify.**

\begin{aligned}
& g\left( a+3 \right)={{a}^{2}}+6a+9-1 \\\\
& g\left( a+3 \right)={{a}^{2}}+6a+8
\end{aligned}

**Function notation is mistaken for a product**

It is common for f(x) to be thought of as “ f times x ” rather than “ f of x ”.

This confusion can lead to incorrect evaluations of values.

E.g.

When finding f(2) when f(x)=x+3 , a mistake may be to think that f(2) means 2(x+3) .

Whereas the correct solution is:

\begin{aligned} &f(x)=x+3 \\ &f(2)=2+3 \\ &f(2)=5 \end{aligned}1. Find f(4) when f(x)=2x+8

12

16

4(2x+8)

8x+32

Replace the x with 4 and simplify.

2. Find g(7) when g(x)=5(x-1)

34

35(x-1)

5(x-7)

30

Replace the x with 7 and simplify.

3. Find h(-5) when h(x)=x^2+x+3

-27

33

23

-5x^2-5x-15

Replace the x with -5 and simplify.

4. Find f(3n) when f(x)=6(x+2)

18n+12

30n

30

18n+2

Replace the x with 3n , expand the brackets and simplify.

5. Find g(4k+1) when g(x)=5x-2

20k-2

23

20k+3

27

Replace the x with 4k+1 , expand the brackets and simplify.

6. Find h(a-2) when h(x)=x^2+5

a^2-4a+1

a^2-4a+9

a^2+4a+9

a^2+4a+1

Replace the x with a-2 , expand the brackets and simplify.

1. Given that f(x)=5x-2

(a) Find f(-4)

(b) Find x when f(x)=8

**(3 marks)**

Show answer

(a)

**(1)**

(b)

Equation formed 5x-2=8

**(1)**

Answer x=2

**(1)**

2. (a) If f(x)=4x+1 , write a simplified expression for f(2a-1)

(b) If h(x)=x^2+2x-3 , write a simplified expression for h(2m+3)

**(5 marks)**

Show answer

(a)

Substitution seen 4(2a-1)+1

**(1)**

8a-3

**(1)**

(b)

Substitution seen (2m+3)^2+2(2m+3)-3

**(1)**

Expanded brackets 4m^2+12m+9+4m+6-3

**(1)**

Simplified expression 4m^2+16m+12

**(1)**

3. Given that f(x)=x^2+2 and g(x)=3(x+4).

Find the value of x which satisfies f(x)=g(x)

**(4 Marks)**

Show answer

Set equal x^2+2=3(x+4)

**(1)**

Form quadratic x^2-3x-10=0

**(1)**

Factorise (x-5)(x+2)=0

**(1)**

Both solutions x=5,-2

**(1)**

You have now learned how to:

- Where appropriate, interpret simple expressions as functions with inputs and outputs

- Decimals
- Quadratic equations

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#### FREE GCSE Maths Practice Papers - 2022 Topics

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Practice paper packs based on the advanced information for the Summer 2022 exam series from Edexcel, AQA and OCR.

Designed to help your GCSE students revise some of the topics that will come up in the Summer exams.