Summative Assessment And Student Success: A Comprehensive Review
Are you looking to design summative assessments that accurately measure your students’ learning progress? It may seem like creating a test is a straightforward task – just jot down some questions and select the answers. But if you aspire to create assessments that genuinely reflect your learners’ abilities and enhance their academic achievements, you need to adopt a more considerate approach and embed these into your lesson plans.
In this article, we’ll delve into the benefits and limitations of summative assessments on student achievement and provide recommendations for teachers to improve the effectiveness of summative assessments for their learners.
- What is summative assessment?
- Examples of summative assessment
- Formative vs summative assessments
- Benefits of summative assessment practices
- How can summative assessment impact student achievement?
- Limitations of summative assessment
- Summative Assessment tips for teachers
What is summative assessment?
Summative assessment is an evaluation of students’ current understanding and achievement. It allows teachers to track learners’ progress over a period of time.
The findings of these assessments can be utilised to make informed decisions about how to support each student in succeeding and determine whether they have achieved the required learning objectives.
Examples of summative assessment
Summative assessments can take many forms, including low stakes tests, exams, projects, or essays, and are often scored to provide a quantifiable measure of students’ performance.
Some examples include:
- Benchmark tests given at the start of the year or a unit of work with the intention of comparing the results with future assessment data.
- Online assessments designed to measure transferable skills and academic aptitude to make predictions and targets for future attainment.
- Portfolios of work, for subjects such as Art or Photography.
- A final project following a period of group work.
- Midterm exams or classroom assessments at the end of a unit of study.
- Performance assessments that showcase students’ development of new skills.
- Key stage assessments that form part of a national curriculum.
- Standardised tests that are sat by students of the same age throughout a country, such as GCSEs and SATs
Formative vs summative assessments
The difference between formative and summative assessment is their purpose, design, frequency, and outcomes. While summative assessment is an assessment of learning, formative assessment is an assessment for learning.
Read more: Formative assessment examples
Formative and summative assessments are the two types of assessment that are most prevalent in education literature. The table below shows their main characteristics:
Benefits of summative assessment practices
The benefits of summative assessment may not be as apparent as those of formative assessment, as they are often less immediate and direct than the advantages gained from ongoing assessment strategies that promote learning.
But summative assessments bring many benefits that enhance teaching and learning.
Tracking student progress
Summative assessments offer assessment data that is typically used to track student progress over time. This data indicates whether students are making the expected level of progress based on their age and abilities.
The results of summative assessments provide an objective measure of accountability for teachers and students.
Teachers can use students’ end-of-year or external assessment results in their appraisal meetings to evaluate their teaching approaches. Additionally, students can be held accountable if their results indicate a decrease in effort or underperformance in one or more subjects.
Summative assessments provide high-stakes conditions for students to showcase their capabilities to themselves and others. These assessments motivate students to prepare and revise more thoroughly than they might for other types of evaluations.
However, lower ability students and those with exam anxiety may be less motivated by summative assessments, which can lead to a decrease in their effort and motivation as the assessment date approaches.
Preparation for external exams
GCSEs and A-Levels are external exams that act as summative assessments at the end of a course. High stakes classroom assessments, such as midterm exams, offer valuable exam practice for time management, meeting assessment objectives, and managing exam anxiety.
Retrieving information from long-term memory during summative assessments strengthens memory for that information and related concepts, which can be beneficial for students during external exams.
Summative assessments can provide schools and education systems with objective data to create standardised scores for each learner. This enables individuals and small cohorts to be compared to other students and larger cohorts.
Standardisation is often used to determine the grade boundaries in external exams, which are then used by universities to set their entry requirements.
How can summative assessment impact student achievement?
The manner in which summative assessment is carried out can have a considerable impact on the academic progress of students.
Summative assessment helps:
- track student progress and identify underachievement, allowing for interventions to be put in place.
- reveal issues with exam technique, which may not be identified through formative assessments.
- hold students and teachers accountable and increase motivation to improve results.
- prepare students for external exams, improving long-term memory retrieval and adjusting revision and exam strategies accordingly.
In all cases above, increased achievement is defined as achieving a higher result in a future summative assessment.
This may not be a reliable or valid measure of achievement, but until education institutions move away from standardised testing and entry requirements that depend on the results of summative assessments, it is an important measure to consider.
Limitations of summative assessment
Summative assessments are widely used in education to measure student achievement, but they also have limitations every teacher should be aware of:
Provides a limited snapshot of student achievement
Summative assessment is limited in that it provides a snapshot of student achievement at one point in time and uses a limited range of assessment strategies.
The validity and appropriateness of summative assessments, particularly external exams, has been scrutinised in the UK after ‘teacher assessed grades’ were used to replace external exams during periods of lockdown.
Closed-book exams may not accurately reflect students’ ability or potential
There is uncertainty about whether closed-book exams that are taken at the end of GCSE and A-Level courses provide an accurate reflection of students’ ability or academic potential.
Students can be coached to perform well on summative assessments, which takes time away from deepening students’ understanding or studying a broader curriculum.
Critics of summative assessment argue that ‘open-book’ assessments would be more appropriate so that students can be tested on their ability to apply and fact-check the material they have access to.
Comparing students based on summative grades might be unfair
Using summative grades to compare students to each other or to gain entry into a school, college, or university, seems unfair when final grades are so dependent on factors outside of students’ control.
Summative assessments emphasise memorization
Summative assessments often require students to memorise material, which is becoming an increasingly redundant skill given how readily information is available online.
Time spent memorising material ahead of a summative assessment could be better spent deepening students’ understanding or improving their ability to critically interact with new material.
Summative Assessment tips for teachers
As a teacher, designing and administering effective summative assessments can be challenging. Here are some tips to help you create successful summative assessments for your students.
1. Design a summative assessment based on its purpose
Consider the purpose of the assessment and allow this to determine the most appropriate design for the summative assessment.
If the purpose of the assessment is preparation for an external exam, mimic the format, length, and question style of the external exam paper.
If the purpose of the assessment is to track progress, include questions that relate to knowledge tested on a previous assessment and questions to gain benchmark data for a future assessment.
2. Offer clear instructions throughout the assessment
Ensure the instructions throughout the assessment clearly convey what is required from the student (e.g. show each step of your calculation).
Create a mark scheme or rubric before the assessment is set so that you are clear about what is required from each question and check that the exam instructions accurately explain this to the students.
3. Ensure consistency in summative assessments from year to year
Use the same summative assessments each year so that each cohort of students can be compared to cohorts from previous years. This allows departments to evaluate their own performance and to make adjustments if a cohort’s performance differs significantly from previous years.
Utilise the benefits of retrieval practice and spacing by including a mixture of recent and past topics on each summative assessment.
4. Prepare students in advance
Prepare students for summative assessments and reduce exam anxiety by producing practice papers that match the summative assessment in terms of style and content.
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- What NEW KS1 Assessment Frameworks Mean For KS2 [Maths]
- Pupil Progress: Measuring The Impact Of The Affective Domain Across 1,750 Schools
- Primary School Grades Explained: Levels, Attainment, Achievement & Progress
- The Myth of Expected Progress in Primary Schools
Summative assessment is designed to produce a measure of achievement. It is important because it helps teachers to track their students’ progress and gives students an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge to external organisations such as employers or universities.
An assessment that has a clear purpose and allows comparisons to be made with the results or past or future assessments.
External exams like Year 6 SATs, GCSEs or A-Levels
End of year or end of topic exams
Benchmark or aptitude tests that measure transferable skills and academic potential
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