10 Of The Best 100 Chart Activities For Elementary School

Hundred charts are versatile and inexpensive teaching resources and visual aids that can be used across the elementary mathematics curriculum, from counting activities in kindergarten through to addition and subtraction and even times tables and fractions in upper elementary. 

In this blog, we consider a variety of different activities to ensure that you are making the most out of this versatile resource, whichever elementary grade you are teaching.

What is a hundred chart?

A hundred chart is a 10×10 square that typically contains the numbers 1-100. 

The numbers are in sequential order and, since our number system is base-10, this means that all numbers with the same ones digit can be found in the same column. This can begin to give children a basic understanding of place value.

Example of a hundred chart
An example of a hundred chart

Understanding the Hundred Chart

Hundred charts are familiar to many of our youngest children as they are the basis of games such as snakes and ladders. This familiarity makes them seem less daunting to children who find numeracy tricky.

Other number charts have the numbers 0-99 instead. Unlike the hundred chart shown above, these squares have the advantage of both numbers with the same ones digit in the same column, and numbers with the same tens digit in the same row.

Alternative to a 100 square with numbers 0 to 99

You can also use a blank 10×10 chart as a number square which may be useful when thinking about numbers smaller than 1.

Blank 100 chart

When do children use hundred charts in school?

Hundred charts can be used by children from pre-kindergarten and kindergarten through to fifth grade. Children can use them as a tool to gain understanding of a topic and to support their reasoning.

How can hundred charts be used in the classroom?

100 charts are a great resource because they are such a versatile concrete math resource. As they can be used in so many topics, children become familiar with them and they are confident to use them independently in the classroom. 

100 charts are also one of the most cost-effective mathematics resources as they can be printable and often don’t even need to be laminated, depending on their use. If you’re looking for something more durable, you can also purchase mini-whiteboards with number squares printed on one side.

100 charts can also be used alongside other math manipulatives.

100 charts for place value

A 100 chart is really useful to support knowledge of the place value of 2-digit numbers. 

Children can use them to support their understanding that as you move one place to the right, the number gets one bigger and one place to the left is one smaller. This is similar for moving up and down a column too.

In pre-kindergarten, you may focus on the first two rows of the number square, leaving the rest for children to explore at their leisure. They could use their fingers to follow when counting up or down to ensure their confidence with 1-1 correspondence. You may then move to ‘missing number’ problems by covering a number and asking children which number has been covered and how they know. This supports early reasoning.

In early elementary, as children begin to learn about numbers to 100, the hundred chart becomes a useful tool for being able to recognize the place value of the digits in a two-digit number and how they relate to other numbers. With the layout of a hundred chart, children can see the relationships of one more/less and ten more/less.

100 charts for times tables

100 charts can help children to understand number patterns and therefore help them to recognize their times tables.

For example, if they colored in every multiple of two on the grid, they would see that every even number is colored and that the pattern of one colored, one not is repeated continuously. Similar patterns are obvious for the ten and five times tables.

Additionally, when children are first learning multiples of any number, being able to count on each time will help them to find and learn the numbers.

TSL lesson slide showing hundred square chart
Hundred chart used in our online one-on-one math tutoring sessions.

100 charts for fractions

Fractions for kids can be challenging. 100 charts – particularly blank ones – can help children to understand fractions, particularly tenths and hundredths.

Since the grid is in ten rows and ten columns, the resource lends itself to being split into ten equal parts to represent tenths. Similarly, since there are one hundred parts, it is perfect for representing hundredths too.

100 charts for decimals

A blank 100 chart is a great resource to represent fractions, decimals and percentages.

It can be used to color a specific value or teachers can write, type or find a worksheet that has the decimal equivalents written into it in exactly the same way. If children have been familiar with hundred charts from earlier in their mathematical understanding, this will help them to see the relationship between the decimal numbers to 1.

100 charts for percentages

As percentages are literally parts per one hundred, the 100 chart can be used to help children understand percentages and their relationships to fractions and decimals.

10 activities using a 100 chart for the elementary classroom

As you can see, 100 charts are versatile and can be used to support teaching in a number of topics. Below, we’ve included ten easy activities using 100 charts in the elementary classroom.

1. Cover a number

Suitable for

Pre-K, Kindergarten and 1st Grade

What you’ll need

Hundred charts and counters


Give students a hundred chart with a number covered. Ask them what the missing number is and how they know.

Tips for Teachers

Use this as an opportunity to encourage number talk and reasoning. 

2. One or ten more or less

Suitable for

Pre-K and Kindergarten

What you’ll need

Hundred charts


Choose a number and ask students to find one more/less or ten more/less. Ask them what they notice.

Tips for teachers

To begin with, students will need to count ten spaces to find ten more or less. This will help them to understand how the hundred chart works.

Eventually, students should be able to move one space up or down, as well as notice that only the tens digit changes – the ones doesn’t.

3. Missing numbers

Suitable for

Kindergarten and 1st grade

What you’ll need

A 100 chart with missing numbers (you can create this yourself using a blank hundred chart)


Ask students to fill in the missing numbers using their understanding of place value and number patterns in a hundred chart.

Tips for teachers

This activity can be modified when children are more comfortable with place value and number sense to include only part of the hundred chart.

Portion of 100 square with missing number

4. Number Patterns

Suitable for

All grades

What you’ll need

100 charts, counters


Students cover multiples of any number you choose. They then look for patterns.

Tips for teachers

This is a really good activity to encourage the use of mathematical vocabulary.

5. Jigsaw

Suitable for

1st grade and 2nd grade

What you’ll need

A hundred charts, scissors


Cut the hundred charts into pieces of varying sizes. The students need to put it back together using their knowledge of place value and number patterns.

6. Race Game

Suitable for

1st grade and 2nd grade

What you’ll need

Dice, hundred chart, counters


Students begin on either 1 (for an addition game) or 100 (for a subtraction game) and race to the other side of the game board.

They roll the dice and move the required number of spaces.

Tips for teachers

Students could do this by counting with one-to-one correspondence or be challenged further by having to do the calculation first.

For example,  If they are currently on 42 and they roll 5, they need to calculate that they will move to 47 before they move their counter.

7. Number bonds

Suitable for

Kindergarten, 1st grade and 2nd grade

What you’ll need

Hundred charts

If using laminated hundred charts, dry wipe pens could be used. If they’re not laminated, counters may be helpful.


Ask students to find number bonds to a given number.

8. Addition and subtraction calculations

Suitable for

1st grade and 2nd grade

What you’ll need

Hundred chart, dry wipe pens/pencils


Use the hundred chart in a similar way to a number line to support addition and subtraction.

Tips for teachers

As with activity number 2 (One or ten more or less), children are likely to begin this by counting in ones. Later on, they should be able to partition numbers into tens and ones to be able to complete their calculations easier and quicker.

9. Multiplication facts

Suitable for

3rd grade, 4th grade and 5th grade (you can adapt for each year group by choosing different times tables)

What you’ll need

Hundred charts

If using laminates, markers could be used. If they’re not laminated, counters may be helpful.


Highlight all of the multiples of the times table you are focusing on. Then, ask students what they notice.

Tips for teachers

Try to guide students away from explaining shape patterns (‘it’s diagonal’) and into number patterns (‘in each number, the digits add up to 9’).

10. What fraction/decimal/percentage is shaded?

Suitable for

3rd grade, 4th grade and 5th grade

What you’ll need

Blank hundred charts (either the teacher could color them, or the students could)


Give students a hundred chart with a section shaded. Ask them to express the amount that is shaded as a fraction, decimal or percentage.

Tips for teachers

You could also ask them to do the same with the unshaded part. This would help them to understand how to produce a whole.

100 charts worked examples

1. What are the missing numbers?

10 Of The Best Hundred Square Activities For Primary Schools image 5

Here, the student has used their knowledge of a hundred chart and place value to know that the number in the middle square has to be one more than 41 and ten less than 52. They can then work out the number next to that.

2. Class 2A need 32 pieces of fruit and 2B need 27 pieces of fruit. How many pieces of fruit are needed altogether?

Worked example image

Here, the child has started with 32 and added 20 by moving two places down and then the 7 by moving seven places to the right. They have found that the answer is 59.

3. What fraction of this shape is shaded? What fraction is unshaded? How do you know?

Unshaded and shaded fraction of hundred chart

34/100 of the shape is shaded because there are 100 equal parts altogether and 34 of those are shaded. 

66/100 are unshaded. I know this because 34+66=100 and in the whole there are 100/100.

Hundred chart practice questions

1. What are the missing numbers?

Portion of 100 square with numbers missing

Answer: 79 in the top box, 88 to the left, 90 to the right and 99 at the bottom.

2. What number is covered? How do you know?

100 square with missing number

Answer: 54 is covered because it is a number one more than 53, one less than 55, ten more than 44 and ten less than 64.

Children would probably only say one of these reasons.

3. There are 75 tickets for first grade’s school play. 42 have been sold. How many are there left to sell?

Answer: 33 tickets left

4. How much of the hundred chart is shaded? Give your answer as a fraction and a decimal.

100 square with 62 squares shaded

Answer: 62/100 which is 0.62

What is a hundred chart?

A hundred chart is a 10×10 grid with the numbers 1-100 in it.

Is 100 chart a cube number?

No, 100 is a square number because 10×10=100 but it is not a cube number as it is not the product of three of the same whole number multiplied.

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The content in this article was originally written by primary school teacher Lauren Marlow and has since been revised and adapted for US schools by math curriculum specialist and former elementary math teacher Christi Kulesza.


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